Amoxillin capsules is indicated for the treatment of the following infections in adults and children (see sections 4.2, 4.4 and 5.1): Oral indications • Acute bacterial sinusitis • Acute Otitis media • Acute streptococcal tonsillitis and pharyngitis • Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis • Community acquired pneumonia • Acute cystitis • Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in pregnancy • Acute pyelonephritis • Typhoid and paratyphoid fever • Dental abscess with spreading cellulitis • Prosthetic joint infections • Helicobacter pylori eradication • Lyme disease The dose of Amoxicillin that is selected to treat an individual infection should take into account: • The expected pathogens and their likely susceptibility to antibacterial agents (see section 4.4) • The severity and the site of the infection • The age, weight and renal function of the patient; as shown below The duration of therapy should be determined by the type of infection and the response of the patient, and should generally be as short as possible. Some infections require longer periods of treatment (see section 4.4 regarding prolonged therapy). Early stage: 500 mg to 1 g every 8 hours up to a maximum of 4 g/day in divided doses for 14 days (10 to 21 days) Late stage (systemic involvement): 500 mg to 2 g every 8 hours up to a maximum of 6 g/day in divided doses for 10 to 30 days 500 mg every 24 h Prior to haemodialysis one additional dose of 500 mg should be administered. In order to restore circulating drug levels, another dose of 500 mg should be administered after haemodialysis. 15 mg/kg/day given as a single daily dose (maximum 500 mg). Prior to haemodialysis one additional dose of 15 mg/kg should be administered. In order to restore circulating drug levels, another dose of 15 mg/kg should be administered after haemodialysis. Did you know in your kitchen cabinet right now you have a pharmacy of antibiotics? Most people don’t know how beneficial the herbs they use to season their foods are at supporting their immune system. There are well over 30 herbs that have antibiotic properties in them. These antibiotics can be found not only in your grocery store as a plant but also in liquid concentrated form at your local natural food store but for the sake of this article we are going to list the most common ten that the average cook may use occasionally or if you aspire to be the next food network star you probably use them every day. This however, is not to say you should not see your favorite medical doctor should you need a synthetic antibiotic but nature has provided us with a garden full in natural form. Many people differ on whether you get the most benefit from dried, extract or fresh leaves but regardless of your choice you need to make them a regular part of your diet. Like all things natural be careful not to use too much as they can become toxic to your system.
SUMMARY OF PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS 1 NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT Amoxicillin 250 mg/5 ml Oral Suspension 2 QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION Contains amoxicillin trihydrate equivalent to 250 mg amoxicillin per 5 ml. 3 PHARMACEUTICAL FORM Powder for Oral Suspension Pale yellow powder which, when reconstituted gives a yellow suspension with a sweet lemon flavour and odour. 4 CLINICAL PARTICULARS 4.1 Therapeutic indications The treatment of bacterial infections caused by amoxicillin-susceptible organisms. Consideration should be given to official guidance regarding the appropriate use of antibacterial agents. It is principally indicated for respiratory, middle ear and urinary tract infections. Respiratory tract - pneumonia, bronchitis ENT - otitis media Urinary tract - cystitis, pyelonephritis Biliary and intra-abdominal infections Gynaecological infections Gonorrhoea Septicaemia Bacterial endocarditis Skin and soft tissue infections Meningitis (seek expert advice) Enteric fevers (typhoid and paratyphoid fevers - seek expert advice) Dental abscess (as an adjunct to surgical management) The prevention of bacteraemia, associated with procedures (e.g. There is no doubt that antibiotics are truly a wonder of modern medicine. Beginning with the discovery of penicillin in 1928, the rapid resolution of bacterial infections from antibiotics caused many in the medical profession to become completely enamored with the drug based approach to illness erroneously thinking that the danger to human life from infections was a thing of the past. By 1940, antibiotics had come into widespread use causing both doctors and people to gradually forget about natural antibiotics for resolving infections and the age old remedies like cod liver oil. This change in the medical paradigm has led in recent decades to abuse of drug based antibiotics and the worrisome rise of antibiotic resistant superbugs such as the “TDR”(totally drug resistant) strain of tuberculosis and The over-reliance on drug based resolution to infections has also triggered an epidemic of children and adults with compromised gut function and autoimmune diseases of all kinds due to an imbalanced intestinal environment and the consequential scourge of leaky gut syndrome. Beyond the problem of antibiotic resistance, however, are the long term effects of even a single round of antibiotics. The expectation in the health community that you can just fix the damage with probiotics and/or fermented foods and that gut flora magically returns to normal seems to be far from accurate. Evidence is now emerging from multiple sources that gut flora may actually be permanently altered by drugs or, at the very least, the damage persists for several years. The Journal reports that the generally acknowledged precept that use of antibiotics only causes disruption of the gut flora for a few weeks is highly flawed.
Antibiotics are chemical substances which are produced by microorganisms and have the capacity to inhibit the growth of and even to destroy bacteria and other microorganisms. Antibiotics are selective in their effect on different microorganisms, being specific in their action not only against genera and species but even against strains and individual cells. They are characterized by certain distinct physical, chemical, and biological properties which make them ideal potential chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of infection (Louis Weinstein). Some of these agents act mainly on gram-positive bacteria, while others inhibit only gram-negative ones. Others affect alike various types of bacteria regardless of their tinctorial properties. Some have no effect upon fungi, while others, although too toxic to be clinically useful at present, are actively fungistatic. Certain antibiotic agents are effective against rickettsiae and a few of the larger viruses. Certain microorganisms are capable of producing more than one antibiotic. The variations in the action of these drugs upon different bacteria and other parasites are both qualitative and quantitative; this has led to the development of the concept of an antibiotic spectrum, which records the selective action of a given antibiotic upon a number of representative bacteria and other microorganism. The antibiotic agents represent a large number of chemical compounds, ranging from simple substances containing only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, to more complex forms which contain nitrogen, sulfur, and even chlorine. Streptomyces griseus, for example, produces streptomycin and mannosidostreptomycin, the antifungous agent actidione, and the antitrichomonas substance, streptocin. Some antibiotics are produced by several different organisms. Thus various penicillins are formed by different strains of Penicillium. Salts and serum proteins, among other factors, may reduce the effectiveness of an antibiotic by neutralizing, adsorbing, or inactivating it. Some antibiotics, penicillin for example, are rapidly destroyed by various bacteria, whereas others, such as streptomycin, are highly resistant to microbial action. The mode of action of antibiotics upon organisms varies. Others affect microbial respiration or the utilization of essential metabolites. Antibiotics vary greatly in their toxicity for animals and man. Most antibacterial agents are potentially capable of eliciting various types of hypersensitivity reactions in patients to whom they are administered. Bacteria sensitive to an antibiotic may gradually develop resistance after contact for varying periods. Nanoparticles have been studied extensively for their antimicrobial properties in order to fight super bug bacteria. Several characteristics in particular make nanoparticles strong candidates as a traditional antibiotic drug alternative. Firstly, they have a high surface area to volume ratio, which increases contact area with target organisms. Thirdly, a multitude of chemical structures, such as fullerenes and metal oxides, allow for a diverse set of chemical functionalities. The key to nanoparticle efficacy against antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria lies in their small size. On the nano scale, particles can behave as molecules when interacting with a cell which allows them to easily penetrate the cell membrane and interfere in vital molecular pathways if the chemistry is possible. A strong research focus has been placed on triggering production of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) using nanoparticles injected into bacterial cells.
Problems of overdosage with amoxicillin are unlikely to occur. If encountered, gastrointestinal effects such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea may be evident and should be treated symptomatically. 5 PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES 5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties Amoxicillin is bactericidal. Like all penicillins it acts by interfering with the The original antibiotics, like a lot of today’s antibiotics, are derived from natural sources. Certain plant extracts, essential oils, and even foods have antibiotic properties. For example.